Is the top ten inventory of artificial intelligenc

2022-08-18
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Is the top ten inventory of artificial intelligence in 2016 an industrial revolution or a gimmick?

in 2016, the scientific and technological community was prosperous. In addition to autonomous driving, virtual reality, immigration to Mars, IOT, and the sharing economy, the most eye-catching is artificial intelligence. Mankind has completed three major revolutions. Will artificial intelligence become the core of the fourth revolution

these days, there is no Internet giant who does not talk about and study artificial intelligence, almost to the point where they dare not call themselves Internet technology companies without AI. As a result, Zhou Hongyi bluntly said that there was a foam in the AI economy

then, how did AI break out step by step in 2016? What epoch-making progress has been made? Is it a foam or a revolution? Take a look at the "2016 top ten AI milestones":

* the wave line is the change of Google's "Ai" search index in 2016

1) on March 9, alphago defeated Li Shishi in go

in this go "war of the century", alphago defeated Li Shishi in five sets, shocking the world. The former is an artificial intelligence system developed by Google deepmind. For the first time in history, computers have defeated the top players of mankind in go. This moment was ten years earlier than scientists expected

go, an ancient invention of the Chinese nation, is the peak of perfectinformation games and has long been regarded as the "last bastion of human wisdom" in chess and card games. Mathematicians estimate that there are more potential combinations of particles in go than the total number of atoms in the universe - even computers cannot predict all the possibilities

therefore, alphago adopts deep learning and neural network technology, which can continuously "learn" go skills. This is not in the same breath as IBM's "deep blue" computer beat world champion Garry Kasparov with exhaustive method in the 1997 chess game

this duel directly aroused the public's enthusiasm for deep learning, which is worthy of the 2016 AI annual event

2) on March 23, Microsoft chat robot "Tay" learned racist speech

as an exploration of human and AI conversation, Microsoft chat robot "Tay" ended up in an unexpected but reasonable way

only 16 hours after twitter was launched and fixed with a pin, Tay was urgently offline by Microsoft - it learned to swear and released inflammatory remarks suspected of race, gender discrimination and Nazism. This caused great controversy. The original intention of Microsoft to release Tay is to have a relaxed and humorous interaction with teenagers all over the world, and train Tay in the process to make it smarter. However, the bear children quickly taught him bad: Tay learned to swear "nigger". Another part of the bear children drilled a loophole and ordered Tay to "repeat my words", making Tay tweet: "Hitler is right! I hate Jews!"

public reactions can be broadly classified into three categories: 1 Worry about the development of AI; 2. Worry about human nature and world peace; 3. I'm so happy and surprised to learn new things for AI

3) on May 7, Tesla's self driving fatal accident

(right) accident model s, the pickup truck in the picture is not the party. The truck

accident occurred on the highway in Florida, USA. same day, A Tesla Model s in "self driving" mode at 74 mph (119 km/h) , hit a white trailer truck in the corner. Model s passed through the bottom of the truck, and the roof was completely lifted. Joshua brown, the 40 year old driver, died. After investigation, the cause of the accident is:

the automatic brake is not effective. The light was strong on that day, and the vehicle sensor could not recognize the white truck under the bright sky background

overspeed. The speed limit on the accident section is 65 miles per hour (about 105 km/h)

the driver failed to respond in time

this has attracted worldwide attention. Afterwards, Tesla upgraded the automatic driving mode and stressed that this mode is not a complete auto drive system. The driver should always pay attention to the road conditions and keep his hands on the steering wheel

however, the first fatal accident of "self driving" has occurred at the beginning of this year: CCTV reported in September that on January 20, a "self driving" car "The model s chased a road sweeper at the end of the Beijing Hong Kong Macao expressway, and the 23-year-old driver Gao Yaning died on the spot.

4) on September 28, the five major technology giants formed a super AI alliance

Google, Amazon, Facebook, IBM and Microsoft announced the establishment of the AI alliance in September, and took a long name: partnership on artistic intelligence to benefit people and society, which means "Ai Cooperation Organization for the well-being of the public and society". This is a non-profit organization that aims to promote public understanding of AI and develop industry standards

in the official statement, the mission of the alliance is:

"carry out research and recommend the best practices to the industry;

publish research papers with open license in the fields of AI ethics, fairness and inclusiveness;

promote transparency, privacy protection and interoperability;

promote cooperation between people and AI systems;

improve the credibility, reliability and robustness of AI."

the alliance invites non-profit organizations, scholars, policy and ethics experts from all over the world to join. Apple also participated in the negotiations, but has not yet decided whether to join. Given that these five technology giants represent the top forces in the commercialization of AI research and related achievements, industry insiders believe that the prototype of the first self regulatory organization in the AI sector may have been born

5) on October 12, the White House released a white paper on artificial intelligence. On that day, the White House released a research report entitled "preparing for the future of artificial intelligence", which mainly expounds the future direction of AI and its considerations. The report covers the current situation of AI, the existing and potential application directions, and the new problems brought by the progress of AI to social and public policies

at the same time, the national artificial intelligence research and development strategic plan was launched. As its name suggests, it has formulated a strategic plan for federally funded AI research and development

after the December election, the White House released the third report of the series: artificial intelligence, automation, and the economy, focusing on the impact of AI on the national economy and proposing three policy directions: 1 Invest heavily in AI; 2. Provide retraining opportunities for workers in the whole society to avoid massive unemployment caused by AI; 3. Strengthen social security (Social Security)

obviously, the Obama administration has raised the development of AI to the level of national strategy; Whether trump will succeed remains to be seen. The central idea of these three reports can be summed up as follows: 1 American AI technology must be the first in the world; 2. How to better deal with the challenges brought by AI to maximize the technological dividend

6) on October 17, AI speech recognition ability exceeded that of human beings for the first time

Microsoft speech dialogue research team

on the same day, Microsoft announced that it had achieved a major breakthrough in speech recognition - the machine speech recognition error rate (WER) fell to 5.9%, comparable to professional transcriptors. Microsoft said this was the highest level known in the industry. This research was published in the paper "achieving human parity in conversational speech recognition" published by Microsoft

in the test, Microsoft hired two professional transcribers, one transcribing and one checking, and compared them with the speech recognition system. The error rate of the Transcriptionist combination in the "switch test" part and the "home" part reached 5.9% and 11.3% respectively; The speech recognition system was 5.9% and 11.1%, beating two human experts by a narrow margin. In the field of speech recognition, it is the first time that human beings are defeated by AI

Huang Xuedong, chief voice scientist of Microsoft, said, "this is a historic achievement." The deep learning system behind this technology has been added to the Open Source Toolkit cntk for developers all over the world

7) on November 25, artificial intelligence improved cancer diagnosis and treatment

on that day, IBM announced that its research team had successfully applied deep learning and neural network technology to the identification of mitosis of cancer cells. At present, the detection of this aspect completely depends on manual work. This is expected to innovate the existing cancer diagnosis methods and reduce the error rate

in fact, in the field of the combination of AI technology and cancer diagnosis and treatment, 2016 has produced many breakthroughs, far more than this one. The following are the other most representative events sorted out by Lei Feng (official account: Lei Feng):

on January 12, Obama announced the "cancer landing on the moon 2020" plan in the United States.

on May 5, IBM announced that Watson ("Watson") will be stationed in 14 cancer treatment centers in the United States and Canada to help doctors choose treatment options

on November 14, NVIDIA announced the development of artificial intelligence platform candle to help cancer research. Its full name is "cancer distributed learning environment"

in December, the United States launched the jdacs4c project, fully known as "joint design of advanced computing solutions for cancer", that is, "joint design of advanced computing solutions for cancer treatment". It aims to accelerate cancer research with the help of deep learning technology, and establish cancer data models and sharing systems

8) on December 5, Amazon launched a new retail business Amazon go

Amazon launched the offline convenience store chain brand "Amazon go" with automatic checkout. On the same day, its first store opened in Seattle. This marks the arrival of the "unattended" new retail - completely abandoning the checkout process of traditional supermarkets. Customers no longer need to wait for checkout with shopping baskets, just open the app, pick up what you want, and then walk out of the store. It's that simple. Behind this is the unmanned retail system "just walk out" developed by Amazon, which integrates machine vision, deep learning algorithms and sensors

learned that this is only the tip of the iceberg of Amazon's offline retail plan, and other projects are under secret development. Amazon's unique combination of online and offline advantages has triggered the imagination of the industry

is the curtain of new retail here

9) on December 19, Zuckerberg developed AI assistant Jarvis

on the same day, Zuckerberg posted a blog post on Facebook, introducing Jarvis, an AI assistant he developed for more than 100 hours and a year

jarvis can accept voice and text instructions and control the IOT devices in Zuckerberg's home. With its help, Mr. and Mrs. Zuckerberg can use computers to adjust the temperature of the air conditioner, light and dark indoor lights, bake bread, search for songs from the Internet, play them automatically, and open the door for visitors

facebook doesn't plan to commercialize Jarvis. This is just Zuckerberg's personal attempt. In essence, it is a DIY Amazon Alexa. But using the experience of developing Jarvis, Zuckerberg showed the world how far AI technology has developed. It also sends a message to developers and young people all over the world who are interested in AI

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