Smart city IOT architecture "new world"
people expect to embed sensors into various objects such as electricity, railways, bridges, tunnels, highways in all corners of the world, and connect them generally to form the so-called "IOT", and then integrate the "IOT" through "interconnection", so as to realize the integration of society and the physical world
with the promotion of IOT and the new generation of information technology, and in a state of seamless connection and friendly man-machine interface, it is really possible to realize a smart city
the smart city plan promoted by the government has a blueprint, but its connotation and objectives are still very vague, and most of them are in the exploration and experimental stage. In this process, we should pay special attention to the possible privacy leakage, data security and other issues in the era of IOT
smart city, a good medicine to solve the "urban disease"
urbanization, popularly speaking, is the continuous process of human migration from rural areas to cities
according to the relevant statistics of the United Nations, in 2000, one quarter of the cities with more than 500000 people in the world were in China. In the early 1980s, 1. Without experiments, that is, in the early stage of reform and opening up, the rural population accounted for about 80% of the national population, while the 2012 China new urbanization report pointed out that China's urbanization rate had exceeded 50%. This means that for the first time, China's urban population has exceeded the rural population, and China's urbanization process has accelerated significantly, entering a new turning point
urbanization is the inevitable trend of social development, and its fundamental meaning is "make life better". Urban construction and management should be people-oriented, provide public services for different classes, and let the general public enjoy the good life brought by urbanization. However, while urbanization brings convenience to our lives, it also brings many attendant problems
urban disease refers to some negative phenomena in the process of rapid urban development, such as population congestion, traffic congestion, employment difficulties, housing tension, deterioration of public health, environmental pollution, ecological damage, etc. Especially in recent years, with the rapid transformation of China's social economy, urban diseases have shown a high incidence, which has attracted widespread attention from all walks of life. For example, the problem of urban congestion is becoming more and more serious. Why are cities congested? Many times, it is because car owners lack effective information and choose inappropriate driving routes, and the transportation department does not have the information of the real-time system, so they are unable to guide the vehicles in time or predictably. For another example, it is often said that cities are nervous about electricity. Why are they nervous? The analysis shows that 40% to 70% of the electricity is not consumed at the user end, but on the road, which shows that in addition to increasing the power generation as much as possible, the whole transmission process of electricity still needs to be improved
therefore, in order to change the urbanization construction from fast to good, we must explore a more "healthy" new urbanization road. If we manage cities in a sophisticated way and use leading information technology to improve the intelligent level of urban planning, construction, management and services, the so-called smart city may be a good medicine to solve urban diseases
smart city, from concept to practice
"smart city" is the specific practice of "smart earth" in urban construction and management. Smart earth is a concept put forward by IBM, that is, people expect to embed sensors into various objects such as electricity, railways, bridges, tunnels, highways, etc. in all corners of the world, and connect them generally to form the so-called "IOT", and then integrate the "IOT" through "interconnection", so as to realize the integration of society and the physical world. This concept was then constantly updated and improved. IBM believes that the "smart city" in the 21st century can make full use of information and communication technology to sense, analyze and integrate the key information of the core system of urban operation, so as to make intelligent responses to various needs, including people's livelihood, environmental protection, public safety, urban services, industrial and commercial activities, and create a better urban life for mankind
"smart earth" has three characteristics: first, more thorough perception, that is, it can make full use of any equipment, system or process that can perceive, measure, capture and transmit information anytime and anywhere; Second, more comprehensive interconnection, that is, smart systems can work together in new ways; Third, more in-depth intelligence, that is, the ability to use advanced technology to more intelligently insight into the world, effectively process information, so as to achieve automatic control, and then create new value
China also attaches great importance to the implementation of smart cities. The outline of the 12th Five year plan proposes to "comprehensively improve the level of informatization", "accelerate the construction of broadband, integrated, secure and ubiquitous next-generation national information infrastructure, promote the deep integration of informatization and industrialization, and promote informatization in all fields of economy and society". At present, the Ministry of housing and urban rural development has launched the National Smart City pilot project; The national development and Reform Commission is drafting guidelines for the healthy development of smart cities; The National Bureau of surveying, mapping and geographic information will organize the pilot work of building a smart city space-time information cloud platform nationwide. The three operators have reached "smart city" strategic cooperation agreements with more than 300 cities. It is estimated that during the 12th Five Year Plan period, the total investment scale of China's "smart city" is expected to reach 500billion yuan
as one of the leaders in the construction and development of smart cities, Nanjing was selected as one of the first pilot cities of "smart city" technology and standards determined by the Ministry of science and technology and the National Standardization Administration Committee in 2013; Nanjing Hexi new city was selected into the first batch of National Smart City pilot list of the Ministry of housing and urban rural development. Nanjing University took the lead in setting up a research institute focusing on smart city research in domestic universities
smart city should have its own "connotation"
because everyone has different positions and different perspectives, the interpretation of the connotation of "smart city" also has different emphasis
technicians believe that smart city is to achieve more sophisticated production and life through the development and application of advanced information technology, with emphasis on technology; The industry believes that the key for smart cities to promote the integration and interaction between informatization and industrialization in a wider range and at a higher level lies in integrated applications; City managers will take the smart city as a means to improve urban operation efficiency, management level and comprehensive service functions, emphasizing the harmonious and sustainable growth of the city. However, no matter what interpretation, the construction of a smart city needs to be supported by technology, that is, based on the diversified combination of IOT technology and the interconnection, mobile communication, optical communication and other networks that carry it. For example, in Taiwan, 6million broadband is used as the infrastructure to promote the construction of a smart city
Chinese culture is broad and profound, and smart cities should also have their own connotation. Wise, smart, high IQ, quick response, agile; Wise, spiritual, savvy, spiritual, high Eq. Therefore, China's smart city is not only the intelligent application of information technology, but also includes human wisdom participation, "people-oriented", sustainable development and other connotations. It is characterized by the deep integration of informatization, industrialization and urbanization, based on the high-tech of "high IQ" and "high EQ", and based on smart industry, smart service, smart management, smart people's livelihood A new urban development model with wisdom and humanity as the main content
to promote the gradual formation of smart cities, we must first rely on corresponding technologies, including intelligent technology and intelligent technology, and the most important is the new generation of information technology represented by IOT, cloud computing and mobile Internet. Secondly, with the technological foundation, combined with social needs, we use human wisdom to carry out R & D, production and management, and develop creative ideas and products, as well as software development, system integration, mobile Internet and other related industries. Third, the smart industry constitutes a network system, which can provide citizens with various intelligent information services and provide cities with intelligent management means. In other words, to generate positively charged high-molecular materials, make full use of and with the help of intelligent high-tech means to effectively integrate resource information, so that all subsystems of society can operate in an efficient manner, realize comprehensive perception, ubiquitous interconnection, pervasive computing and integrated applications, and make the city construction more "smart"
smart city, grasp the "opportunity" of IOT
the development of global informatization is divided into three waves, the first is the personal computer era with information processing as the core; The second is the Internet era with information transmission as the core; The third time is the era of IOT with information acquisition as the core
information technology has always been a key area to enhance international competitiveness. In the competition of the new generation of information technology represented by IOT, China's situation is both optimistic and worrying. IOT can be divided into four layers: application layer, system layer, module layer, and components, which are actually different parts of the industrial chain. At its highest end, that is, the end closest to users, there are many well-known enterprises, such as Chinatelecom, China Mobile and China Unicom, the three giants in China's communication field. Chinese people are very proud to be able to run the information industry by themselves. Where do the facilities used by these operators come from? It is purchased from the manufacturer. There are also several well-known enterprises in China, such as Huawei and ZTE, whose products have also extended to all corners of the world. Therefore, at the system level, China has also occupied a place in the world. However, when it comes to the module layer and component layer, we will find that there is a lack of leading enterprises in China. Components are equivalent to the CPU of computers. They are the core technology of the information industry, but they have been controlled by enterprises in the United States, Japan and other developed countries. Therefore, the lack of independent property rights of key technologies is one of the key factors restricting the development of China IOT
there are two sources of developing a new generation of core technologies with independent intellectual property rights. One is market driven, which produces innovative solutions to problems arising from problems in the market; Second, on the basis of market research, aim at some cutting-edge technologies and produce original technical solutions. China's previous problems are: first, it simply introduces mature technology, and when this technology becomes obsolete, it has to introduce newer technology, lacking self innovation and technology continuity; Second, it only studies foreign advanced technology itself, but does not combine it with domestic demand. Therefore, some technological research achievements cannot be landed in China and transformed into industries. To build a smart city, we must not follow such a path again. We should seize the opportunity to enter the core technology field. Now, it is an opportunity
why do you say so? In 1965, large computers appeared in the world; In 1980, Apple Computer appeared; In 1995, interconnection and mobile communication were formed; Basically, it takes 15 years as a cycle, so in 2010, just in this era, a new technology (IOT) is likely to take shape. Therefore, if we grasp this major opportunity, there may be Intel in China, IBM in China and apple in China
IOT English is IOT (Internet of thing), which is a network connecting things. Therefore, IOT can be simply described as the connection between various information sensing devices and the interconnection of Harbin Institute of technology and China Air Force Research Laboratory, so as to facilitate identification and management. Its development goal is ubiquitous perception, communication, computing, and friendly (seamless) human-machine interface. matter